Midpoint Rounding

Decimal midpoint rounding options in C# default to To Even. This was a head scratching moment for me at first, as the way us humans have been taught to round is generally Away From Zero.

Away From Zero rounds 2.5 to 3; the way most of us were taught rounding at school.

var needsRounding = 2.5M;
var rounded = Math.Round(needsRounding, MidpointRounding.AwayFromZero);


// prints "3"

To Even rounds 2.5 to 2. This is often known as Banker’s Rounding..

var needsRounding = 2.5M;
var rounded = Math.Round(needsRounding, MidpointRounding.ToEven);


// prints "2"

Banker’s Rounding

According to MSDN:

(Banker’s Rounding) conforms to IEEE Standard 754, section 4. When used in multiple rounding operations, it reduces the rounding error that is caused by consistently rounding midpoint values in a single direction. In some cases, this rounding error can be significant.

Rounding multiple numbers using Away From Zero compounds errors, whereas To Even (Banker’s Rounding) will round up half the time and round down the other half, so the rounding errors cancel each other out.

Check this out for yourself by summing a load of random numbers:

// instantiate some variables to store our sums
decimal actualTotal = 0;
decimal awayFromZeroTotal = 0;
decimal toEvenTotal = 0;

// generate 1,000,000 random numbers; round and sum them
var random = new Random();
for (int i = 0; i < 1000000; i++)
    // generate a random int from 0 to 1000 and divide it by 1000M (decimal)
    // this gives us random decimals to 3 decimal places between 0 and 1
    var next = random.Next(1000) / 1000M;

    // keep track of our actual total
    actualTotal += next;

    // round the 3 decimal place numbers to 2 places using the different rounding options
    // add the rounded numbers to their respective totals
    awayFromZeroTotal += Math.Round(next, 2, MidpointRounding.AwayFromZero);
    toEvenTotal += Math.Round(next, 2, MidpointRounding.ToEven);

// print out our summed results
Console.WriteLine($"Actual total: {actualTotal}");
Console.WriteLine($"Away from zero: {awayFromZeroTotal}");
Console.WriteLine($"To even: {toEvenTotal}");

// Actual total: 499507.199
// Away from zero: 500008.41
// To even: 499510.54

The results are pretty much as you’d expect. We’re summing 1,000,000 numbers between 0 and 1, so you’d expect the result to be around 500,000… which it is.

The actual total (for this particular run-through) was 499507.199. To Even rounding result gave us 499510.54; pretty close. Away From Zero rounding gave us 500008.41, about 500 above actual.

500 is fairly consitent between runs and is due to the size of the population and the rounding precision. Changing the population or precision would yield a different, but none-the-less consitent compounded error.


So, yeah… banker’s rounding makes sense in this case, and likely in a lot of other cases where the rounded number is used in a later calculation. I can see why it’s the default… just a shame we weren’t taught this way at school!